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  • Evaluation of an IMCI computer-based training course in Kenya | Publications

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines (IMCI) in the mid-1990s to enable a holistic approach to the care of children presenting at developing-country healthcare facilities with symptoms of common childhood illnesses. To train healthcare providers (here "clinicians") to use the IMCI guidelines, WHO/UNICEF developed a three-part training program typically consisting of an 11-day course where clinicians attend lectures in the morning and have clinical practice in the afternoon and a preceptorship where the clinicians receive three site visits about a year after they take the course. The 11-day "standard" course requires about six facilitators for about 20 clinicians. In hopes of reducing the time and cost of the traditional training method while maintaining or improving the knowledge transfer, the Quality Assurance Project (QAP) developed a computer-based version of the training course. Where the standard course involves lectures, the computer-based training (CBT) program provides the same content through use of a CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory). A classroom of about 20 trainees can study the CD-ROM content in about six days with about four facilitators available to provide assistance. Like the standard lectures, the CD-ROM content requires clinical practice and preceptorship. (excerpt)

  • Vendor-to-vendor education to improve malaria treatment by the private sector: a "how-to" manual for district managers | Publications

    This manual was developed to assist district health management teams in countries where malaria is endemic to improve the quality of malaria treatment given by private clinics, pharmacies, shops, and kiosks. It gives step-by-step instructions for how to implement a public health activity that will involve wholesalers in communicating malaria guidelines to retailers and private clinics. Typically, district health management teams have focused on improving the quality of care offered by government hospitals, health centers and dispensaries. However, because these days 60-80% of people with malaria--or parents of children with malaria--first visit a private establishment to get treatment, it has become more and more important for district health teams to give attention also to the private sector. The Vendor-to-Vendor education activity is a low-cost approach for developing an effective public-private partnership to ensure that people receive prompt and effective treatment for malaria. (excerpt)

  • Assessing Health Worker Performance of IMCI in Kenya | Publications

    Quality assessment is the measurement of the quality of healthcare services. A quality assessment measures the difference between expected and actual performance to identify opportunities for improvement. Performance standards can be established for most dimensions of quality, such as technical competence, effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and coverage. Where standards are established, a quality assessment measures the level of compliance with standards. For dimensions of quality where standards are more difficult to identify, such as continuity of care or accessibility, a quality assessment describes the current level of performance with the objective of improving it. A quality assessment frequently combines various data collection methods to overcome the intrinsic biases of each method alone. These methods include direct observation of patient-provider encounters, staff interview, patient focus group, record review, and facility inspection, among others. The assessment is often the initial step in a larger process, which may include providing feedback to health workers on performance, training and motivating staff to undertake quality improvements, and designing solutions to bridge the quality gap. This case study describes how five Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMOI) trainers and supervisors conducted an assessment of provider knowledge and skill, to carry out IMCI at 38 facilities in two districts in Kenya. (excerpt)